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Beitragvon turanclancath » 09.02.2006 09:38

Ich habe hier Fuer Maridel Eine Seperate Uebersetzungs Ecke untergebracht ,dass ist Systematischer.In Iberia gehoert es schlieslich.
Sie hat ( wunderbarr Schnell ) Peters Ersuchnis schon Fertig.
Ich werde Ihr gleich mailen es hier zu posten.

Und ess wuerde sehr nett sein wenn wir ab und zu einige Kurze Zeilen in Englisch hier fuer Maridel schreiben.KannSie auch kurz in Englisch was ueber die Spanische Geschiche schreiben und nicht nuer allein uebersetznen.
Danke fuer dass gefallen .
Don Turan :):):)

Ich werde dieses frei!!!!( ins Gymnasium warr Ich auch immer ein Meister in Freie Uebersetzungen wenn Ich es mal wieder nicht genau wuestte ) ins Englisch uebersetzen und es Ihr zusenden

I opened here for Maridel an seperate translation corner .
Thats more systematic it belongs after all in Iberia.
Maridel worked fantastic fast and has the translation Peter asked for already done.
And it would be very kind if you sometimespost some schort lines here in Englisch for Maridel.
Than can she can reply in Englisch about Spanisch history.and not only translate but also participate.
Thanks for the favor.
Don Turan :):):)

The Man of Galera Translation

Beitragvon Maridel » 09.02.2006 17:54

The man of Galera

His mummy let us know what was life like 3500 years ago.

Scientist found in Granada the mummified remains of a man and a child of the Bronze Age.
We are in front of the most important archeological find of the last years.

Archeologists that were trying to put off the stone wall that sealed the burial number 121, couldn?t imagine that they were making an astonishing tunnel towards Prehistory. The expected, with some chance, to find the skeleton of a man of the El Argar culture, that occupied the West Mediterranean, particularly the provinces of Almería, Murcia, great part of Granada, Jaén and Alicante, during the Bronze Age, between 4000 and 2700 years ago.

The site of Castellón Alto has been particularly generous with archeologists. Since the first excavation in 1983 they have registered circa 130 burials and recuperated the skeletons of at least 120 people, many funerary offerings and vestiges of organic material ?seeds, pollen, coprolites of domestic animals, coal and woods. But when they enlightened the burial 121 they were in great excitement.
The man, the child and the funerary offerings

Before their eyes appeared the partly mummified body of a man with very long hair rolled in his arm and surrounded by a great funerary furnishing. Near the back of the mummy, laid the skeleton of a child, also partly mummified, of dark hair, combed towards his forehead.

The finding was accomplished in November 2002. Fernando Molina, codirector of the excavation and Professor of the Department of History and Archeology of Granada University. The ?mummy of Galera? can be considered as the human remains in best conditions of Prehistory, after the man of Otzi.

To avoid the deterioration of the mummy because the contact of air, the archeologists sealed the burial. They had then the difficult task of arriving to the bodies without making alterations in the organic materials preserved through 3500 years.

Man of Galera

Beitragvon Maridel » 09.02.2006 17:57

Tombs were excavated in the interior of the house.

?Following the funeral costumes of the El Argar culture ?that takes its name from the deposit placed in the region of the Bajo Almanzora, in Almería, the burials of Castellón Alto were constructed in the interior of the houses? ?said María Oliva Rodríguez, codirector of the Excavation and teacher in the University of Jaén.
Dead and living shared the same physical space in the argaric villages.
Professor Molina says that they developed a more elaborated religious feeling that their ancestors of the Copper Age. ?They devoted to their dead ritual cults associated with the believes of the ?other life?, also they honored them as remarkable ancestors, keeping them in the own house?.
Perhaps this costume was established to show pride for their ascendants and to fix their relations of power. The argaric culture was characterized by its strong social hierarchy.

Caves sealed by great stones

Tombs in Castellón Alto ?except the infantile inhumations in funerary urns or ?pithoi?- are vertical cavities excavated in the soil, and frequently artificial caves made in the back part of the huts. An opening egg-shaped takes to a little cave of oval design where the dead person is put in fetus position near the funerary furnishing.

Placing the burials in the back part of the house is not casual and it is explained because the particular urban architecture of El Argar. Argaric villages often appear in the sides of the mountains, with strong natural defenses and water supplies. This was the case of the village of Castellón Alto. The dwellers cut the rock of the terraces in order to bury diverse platforms, horizontal and disposed as stairs. Houses were built following the slope, so the back wall of the house coated the slope of rock, that was also niche for the dead.

The burial of the andalousian mummy appeared in one of the houses of the inferior terrace of the village, that also lays over and old gypsum mine. The archeologists wanted to extract a cube of rock, to keep researching at the University, but it was impossible. So they decided to build a little house to make a kind of laboratory.

The Man of Galera

Beitragvon Maridel » 09.02.2006 18:00

They worked the wood as the best of carpenters

Archeologists installed refrigeration systems and equipment to register the environmental parameters. When they retired the wall of masonry, they found 3 wood planks perfectly squadred covered with a layer of mud.
The corpse was closed in a kind of hermetic recipient that avoided ground filtrations. This, joined to the environmental dryness favoured exceptional conditions to preserve organic material.

The child was transported to the new burial

?In a first approximation, the dimensions of the tomb indicated us that it was not built for the child? ?said professor Molina.
?His corpse was unburied from the original tomb to be placed with the adult. The disposition of the bones make me think that the child, that was partially mummified, was transported wrapped in a bag of stuff. This could be made of linen, because we have found remains of this tissue in the skull of the child?, explains professor Miguel Botella, from the University of Granada.
?The relocation of the child could be because familiar reasons. Perhaps he was the son of the adult, or perhaps the tomb of the kid had to be destroyed to excavate the tomb of the father? ?says professor Molina.
But, who was this andalousian of the Bronze Age?

The answer is in the scarce meter of the tomb. The burial furnishing and the dress give important data of his social status. The analysis of the bones and mummified body tissues speak about his sex, physical type, health, time of death and parentage with the girl or boy. ?The child sex cannot be determined from the bones, because the distinctive features only appear at puberty. There are some clues that make us think they are feminine remains? ?says Doctor Sylvia Jiménez, from the Department of Physical Anthropology.
José Antonio Lorente, chief of the DNA Laboratory of the University of Granada says that the genetical analysis of tissues of the child mummy will tell not only his sex, but his familiar relation with the adult mummy, whose DNA will be extracted too.
The kid, with dark and short hair combed towards his forehead, had a bronze bracelet in each arm and three collar beads. Besides the remains of linen, they have found the remains of a possible cap of wool covered with leather.

The man of Galera

Beitragvon Maridel » 09.02.2006 18:01

Gypsum crystals indicate that he could die in summer.

Anthropologists have determined that he was 4 years old and that he was sick when he was only 2. In the crowns of the first permanent molars that appear until 6 years old and that in this child are in the interior of the jaws, it is appreciated hipoplasia or thinner of dental enamel. He could have suffered an infectious process, or an alimentary deficiency. 24 months after, the child was dead. The cause of his death is unknown. It could have been an infectious process.

Scientists could not determine the reason of the adult?s death. But professor Botella says that he was dead in the middle of the summer. He has found in the mummy gypsum crystals formed perhaps because a strong evaporation that only could have took place in summer. The study of the insects will help to determinate the time of the death (the animals associated to the corpse).

The analysis of the content of the stomach revealed that the Man of Galera suffered intestinal worms: the trichuris trichiura, that may cause haemorrhages. Also a dermatophite fungus was detected in the scalp.

The man was dead at a young age. He was a male of big nose, graceful body about 160 m. who was 27 or 29 years old when he died ?says doctor Inmaculada Alemán, from the Department of Physical Anthropology.
?He had arms too long in relation with his other corporal dimensions. This detail is appreciated too in the child, which could indicate he was his son? ?says professor Botella.

Long hair to the waist

A remarkable feature of the mummy of Galera was his hair, that reached his waist. He was combed with two lateral plaits and a central ?pony-tail? tied with some stone beads. The big pony tail is undone and rolled in the folded arm. The mummy also keeps remains of hair of the beard, and body hair, adhered to the skin.

Great part of the tissues of the dress have disappeared. Perhaps he had a cap and trousers. Also there is a little net in his right leg, with remains of wool. Perhaps this was a kind of protection against hits in the calf.

Professor Botella has proved that wool is also associated with remains of linen. Wool is not woven , but its fibers form a kind of felt. He believes the mummy was wrapped in a funerary blanket (sudario), like a caramel. This would explain the fetal posture of the body, impossible to achieve in natural way. The femur is parallel to the vertebral column.

His funeral furnishing

In the El Argar culture, the tombs of humble people are always almost empty, but those of wealthy ones present elements almost exclusives. Professor Molina thinks that the Man of Galera had a middle high position, belonging to the elite of the village that lived in the acropolis. He wore a pair of silver rings in the fingers little and anular of his left hand and copper bracelets. Also they have found a copper dagger with remains of leather in the sheath and a copper axe with wood handle that could have been employed as an axe to work the wood.
Aside the mummy, his loved ones put four ceramic vessels characteristic of the El Argar culture: a cup, that probably had a type of perfume, a bowl for liquids, perhaps juice of grape and two vessels which contained surely food.
This is the time when begins the exhaustive research to know how were the people of the Bronze Age and how they lived.

Thank you

Beitragvon Peter N. » 09.02.2006 20:55

My special
"Thank you"
for translating the spanisch text and the work doing it for us!
Some years ago I had the great luck visiting Mexiko on the Tourist-trail, seeing a lot of great pyramids at Tenochtitlan, Yucatan and the landscape around there. But best of all was the chance to meet some nice mexican people!

Thank you Don Turan for help and the idea!

Merci nocheinmal

Peter N.

Danke Peter

Beitragvon Maridel » 10.02.2006 04:39

Don Turan introduced me to this magnificent forum full of knowledgeable and charming people like you.
I am glad you visited Mexico and very happy because you could see that wonder of the world: Teotihuacan and the amazing buildings of the Maya in Yucatan.
I am studying a little German by myself and I am grateful because your kindness of writing in English. But I am eager to read German -I have my trustful dictionary here :P-
The article of the Man of Galera is very interesting. I was talking with Don Turan about it and we both remarked that the man of Galera, as the Minoan males, used the hair very long. So, the hair of men was long in the Bronze Age in some places like South Spain and Crete...

Greetings from Mexico


Beitragvon Steve Lenz » 10.02.2006 10:18

Willkommen im Forum, Maridel!

Danke für die großartige Arbeit! Don Turan: Das war eine Klasse-Idee von Dir!

I was talking with Don Turan about it and we both remarked that the man of Galera, as the Minoan males, used the hair very long. So, the hair of men was long in the Bronze Age in some places like South Spain and Crete...


In bronze age south-east germany too! :D There are find?s of golden wire in a grave of a man - near his lower back. The wire is called wrapped around a hairtail.

I like the hair-style of BA-men... 8)


Im bronzezeitlichen Süd-Ost-Deutschland ebenfalls! Man fand Golddraht in einem Männergrab - auf Höhe des unteren Rückens. Der Draht wird als Umwickelung für einen Haarschweif angesprochen.

Ich mag die Haarmode bronzezeitlicher Männer... 8)


Gracias! :wink:
Aus den Augen - aus dem Sinn.
Steve Lenz
Beiträge: 3162
Registriert: 05.12.2005 15:18

Long hair, BA and for example... bulls

Beitragvon Maridel » 10.02.2006 17:25

Danke, Steve, four your kind welcome!

I like BA hair too! :D
I was just thinking howcome the performance of the "tauromachy" or bull fighting as painted in the Minoan frescoes could have been... talking about long hair.
Because this complicated dance of bullfighting charged an extra danger if you consider long hair of women and men involved. Hair could be attached to the horns of the bull, for example :?
"Toreros" of the XVIII nd XIX century attached their hair in a pony tail.
And they didn't have to jump over the bull as the remote Minoans!

Kennen Sie Mexico, Steve?

Beitragvon Steve Lenz » 10.02.2006 17:49

Kennen Sie Mexico, Steve?

Leider nur aus Büchern, TV,... :oops:
Aus den Augen - aus dem Sinn.
Steve Lenz
Beiträge: 3162
Registriert: 05.12.2005 15:18

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